It is the rule in many jurisdictions that an insurer which assumes defense of its insured without issuing a reservation of rights can be estopped from later denying coverage based on rights or defenses in the insurance contract. This general rule was rejected by the Supreme Court of Wisconsin in Maxwell v. Hartford Union High School District, 814 N.W.2d 484 (Wis. 2012). The court in Maxwell held that an insurer which defends without reserving the right to deny coverage has not waived its ability to rely on coverage clauses in the policy allowing for such a denial.
In Maxwell, the policyholder - a school district facing a wrongful termination suit from an ex-employee - tendered a claim to its liability insurer which defended the school district in the ensuing litigation without issuing a reservation of rights letter. It was not until a judgment in excess of $100,000 was awarded against the school district that the insurer denied coverage based on language in the policy excluding liability for damages due under the employment agreement and for lost benefits or lost wages. That the policy indeed excluded coverage for the damages at issue was not in dispute. The issue presented to the court was whether, because the insurer failed to issue a reservation of rights, it had waived or could be estopped from asserting its defense of no coverage. In rendering its decision, the court held that waiver or estopped could not supply coverage to an insured that was not provided in the policy itself. Ruling otherwise, the court stated, would force an insured to pay for a loss for which it had not received a premium.
The court clarified that waiver or estoppel did not apply to the present case because it involved a coverage clause, as opposed to a forfeiture clause (such as a notice or cooperation clause). It noted that an insurer must act timely on a forfeiture defense and stated that providing a defense may be grounds for establishing waiver or estoppel regarding a forfeiture clause where the insurer fails to issue a reservation of rights. The court also made clear that its decision did not limit the damages applicable to an insurer which breaches its duty of good faith toward its insured. Such an insurer is liable for all damages resulting from its breach, and is not limited to damages contemplated by the contract.
The Maxwell court emphasized the importance of communication between insurers and insureds. Indeed, after Maxwell, policyholders should have increased motivation to engage in clear, detailed communications with their insurer regarding the insurer's coverage position prior to entrusting the insurer with defense of a claim. If a policyholder cannot rely on a reservation of rights letter to explain the scope and limits of an insurer's coverage position, it must seek such information through other means.