Executive Summary: The American Gaming Association estimates that Americans will bet a total of $9.2 billion on March Madness brackets, pools and contests this year, an increase of approximately $200 million from last year. While estimates vary, some sources say as many as 51 million office workers will participate in March Madness office pools or brackets. March Madness, Super Bowl, and Fantasy Football pools have become ingrained in the American workplace and seem harmless to many; however, permitting such activities creates a wide range of risks for employers, from productivity loss to discrimination and disability issues and even criminal penalties.  Online gambling can also create headaches for employers and IT departments.  Before turning a blind eye or participating in the pool, here are a few risks with which employers should become familiar.

  • Illegal Moves – Gambling at work is illegal in many states and resides in a legal gray area in others.  Further, with more employers operating in multiple states and more employees working remotely, office betting pools may span state lines and may violate federal law. 
  • Blowing the Whistle – Because gambling is illegal, employers should also watch out for employees who "blow the whistle" on activities such as an employer's betting pool and then claim retaliation. 
  • Impact on Productivity – Although there is no legal liability, employees watching ball games during work hours can reduce productivity and potentially impact your bottom line.  Further, just a few employees streaming games on work computers can significantly slow your network, impacting other employees.
  • Employee Morale – While some managers believe office pools are good for employee morale, be aware that some employees may object to them.  An employee who objects to gambling on religious grounds may bring a hostile work environment claim if co-workers – or worse, supervisors – harass or ridicule the employee for not participating in the pool.
  • Disability –  While the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) specifically exempts gambling addiction from its coverage, an employee with gambling problems may suffer from other medical conditions, such as depression or mental illness, which may be covered by the ADA or state law.  Compulsive gamblers may have other problems at work, such as borrowing money from co-workers, being distracted from work, and attendance problems. 

Online Gambling: An All-Season Pastime

With the increasing legalization of online gambling, individuals can gamble from anywhere, even their smart phones.  Employees may attempt to gamble on work time or from their employers' computers.  The shift to online gambling is likely to create issues for employers who previously may have turned a blind eye to Super Bowl pools or NCAA brackets, but must now decide how to address gambling year round.

The Best Defense is a Good Offense

If employers decide to take a chance on employee betting, they should institute clear policies.  The policy should:

  • state that gambling is illegal;
  • describe acceptable and prohibited behaviors;
  • state that employees can be disciplined for violating the policy; and
  • identify all work areas where betting is prohibited, including offices, cafeterias, and parking lots. 

Employers should also include a mechanism for employee complaints and be prepared to handle them in the same way as any other complaints.  Enforcement of the policy is key.  Employers face a greater chance of liability when they have a policy but do not enforce it fairly.

Employers' Bottom Line:

Employers should be wary of turning a blind eye to workplace gambling.  Depending on state laws, employers who choose to allow gambling at work should institute policies defining acceptable and unacceptable behavior and should discipline violators.